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Blau and Richard M. Emerson, who in addition to Homans are generally thought of as the major developers of Social exchange exchange perspective within sociology.
Although there are various modes of exchange, Homans centered his studies on dyadic exchange. When one Social exchange they are rewarded for their actions, they tend to repeat the action.
The more often a particular stimulus has resulted in a reward in the past, the more likely it is that a person will respond to it. The more often in the recent past a person has received a particular reward, the less valuable any further unit of that reward becomes. Peter Blau focused his early writings on social exchange theory more towards the economic and utilitarian perspective, whereas Homans focused on reinforcement principles which presuppose individuals base their next social move on past experiences.
Blau's utilitarian focus encouraged the theorist to look forward, as in what they anticipated the reward would be in regards to their next social interaction.
Homans believed that social exchange theory was based on reinforcement principles. According to Emerson, Exchange is not a theory, but a framework from which other theories can converge and be compared to structural functionalism. To him, the meaning of individual self-interest is a combination of economic and psychological needs.
They developed a theoretical framework based on the interdependence of actors. They also highlighted social implications of different forms of interdependence such as reciprocal control.
The study of the theory from the microeconomics perspective is attributed to Blau. Blau stated that once this concept is understood, it is possible to observe social exchanges everywhere, not only in market relations, but also in other social relations like friendship.
The major difference between social and economic exchange is the nature of the exchange between parties. Neoclassic economic theory views the actor as dealing not with another actor but with a market and environmental parameters, such as market price. The elements of relational life include: Costs are the elements of relational life that have negative value to a person, such as the effort put into a relationship and the negatives of a partner.
Rewards are the elements of a relationship that have positive value. Rewards can be sense of acceptance, support, and companionship etc. As with everything dealing with the social exchange theory, it has as its outcome satisfaction and dependence of relationships.
The social-exchange perspective argues that people calculate the overall worth of a particular relationship by subtracting its costs from the rewards it provides. On the contrary, a negative number indicates a negative relationship.
The worth of a relationship influences its outcome, or whether people will continue with a relationship or terminate it. Positive relationships are expected to endure, whereas negative relationships will probably terminate.
In a mutually beneficial exchange, each party supplies the wants of the other party at lower cost to self than the value of the resources the other party provides. In such a model, mutual relationship satisfaction ensures relationship stability.
The "satisfactory-ness" of the rewards that a party gains from an exchange relationship is judged relative to some standard, which may vary from party to party. These changes can occur over a person's life course through the various relationships, opportunities and means of support.
An example of this is the convoy model of support, this model uses concentric circles to describe relationships around an individual with the strongest relationships in the closet circle.
As a person ages these relationships form a convoy that moves along with the person and exchanges in support and assistance through different circumstances that occur.
Within this model there are different types of support Social support a person can receive, those being intangible, tangible, instrumental, and informational. Intangible support can either be social or emotional and can be love, friendship and appreciation that comes with valuable relationships.
Tangible support are physical gifts given to someone such as land, gifts, money, transportation, food, and completing chores. Instrumental support are services given to someone in a relationship.
Finally, informational support is the delivering of information that is helpful to an individual. Cost being equal, they choose alternatives from which they anticipate the greatest rewards.Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process.
The purpose of this exchange is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Social Exchange theory explains how we feel about a relationship with another person as depending on our perceptions of fairness.
The US-Russia Social Expertise Exchange (SEE) is a diverse network of Russian and US professionals and entrepreneurs engaged in a meaningful exchange of ideas and best practices that lead to joint action and positive change in the social dimensions of both countries.
Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process. The purpose of this exchange is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Social exchange theory is a model for interpreting society as a series of interactions between people that are based on estimates of rewards and punishments.
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