Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy By: Bellamy started off his career as a journalist but then married and decided to devote his efforts to writing fiction novels. Looking Backward was published and Bellamy was famous. The book stirred around the country and had people imagining a world like the one Bellamy created in his book.
Publication history[ edit ] The decades of the s and the s were marked by economic and social turmoil, including the Long Depression of —, a series of recessions during the s, the rise of organized labor and strikesand the Haymarket affair and its controversial aftermath.
Edward Bellamy —a relatively unknown New England -born novelist with a history of concern with social issues,  began to conceive of writing an impactful work of visionary fiction shaping the outlines of a utopian future, in which production and society were ordered for the smooth production and distribution of commodities to a regimented labor force.
In this he was not alone — between andno fewer than 11 such works of fiction were produced in the United States by various authors dealing fundamentally with the questions of economic and social organization.
This first translation, the first piece of science fiction from a Western country published in Qing dynasty China, was done in an abridged format by Timothy Richard. He finds himself in the same location Boston, Massachusettsbut in a totally changed world: It is the yearand while he was sleeping, the United States has been transformed into a socialist utopia.
The remainder of the book outlines Bellamy's thoughts about improving the future. The major themes include problems associated with capitalism, a proposed socialist solution of a nationalization of all industry, and the use of an "industrial army" to organize production and distribution, as well as how to ensure free cultural production under such conditions.
The young man readily finds a guide, Doctor Leete, who shows him around and explains all the advances of this new age, including drastically reduced working hours for people performing menial jobs and almost instantaneous, Internet-like delivery of goods.
Everyone retires with full benefits at age 45, and may eat in any of the public kitchens. The productive capacity of the United States is nationally owned, and the goods of society are equally distributed to its citizens. A considerable portion of the book is dialogue between Leete and West wherein West expresses his confusion about how the future society works and Leete explains the answers using various methods, such as metaphors or direct comparisons with 19th-century society.
Although Bellamy's novel did not discuss technology or the economy in detail, commentators frequently compare Looking Backward with actual economic and technological developments. For example, Julian West is taken to a store which with its descriptions of cutting out the middleman to cut down on waste in a similar way to the consumers' cooperatives of his own day based on the Rochdale Principles of somewhat resembles a modern warehouse club like BJ's, Costco, or Sam's Club.
He additionally introduces a concept of "credit" cards in chapters 9, 10, 11, 13, 25, and 26, but these actually function like modern debit cards.
All citizens receive an equal amount of "credit". Those with more difficult, specialized, dangerous, or unpleasant jobs work fewer hours in contrast to the real-world practice of paying them more for their efforts of, presumably, the same hours. Despite the "ethical" character of his socialism though he was initially reluctant to use the term "socialism"Bellamy's ideas somewhat reflect classical Marxism.
In chapter 19, for example, he has the new legal system explained. Most civil suits have ended in socialism, while crime has become a medical issue. The idea of atavismthen current, is employed to explain crimes not related to inequality which Bellamy thinks will vanish with socialism.
Remaining criminals are medically treated.
One professional judge presides, appointing two colleagues to state the prosecution and defense cases. If all do not agree on the verdict, then it must be tried over.Looking backward edward bellamy essay.
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marketing article review quadra. What is a perspective essay. Fukuoka | Japan Fukuoka | Japan. Looking Backward: – is a utopian science fiction novel by Edward Bellamy, a journalist and writer from Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts; it was first published in It was the third-largest bestseller of its time, after Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ.
It influenced a large number of intellectuals, and appears by title in many socialist writings of the day. The American Republic: Its Constitution, Tendencies, and Destiny [Orestes Brownson] on attheheels.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
First published in , this book is a surprisingly thoughtful and theoretical approach to politics from an historical American intellectual. Brownson discusses America in the context of (1) what a “nation” is. Name: Pete Fowler Email: at ntlworld' Years_at_school: 62 Date: 29 Apr Time: Comments.
Yesterday's Guardian carried an obituary notice for Fred Bilson, one of the English Department's star cast in the middle and late s. From the Paper: "When Bellamy wrote "Looking Backward" "was the most popular book at the turn of the century, printed in many millions of copies in the United States, translated into .